Sutherland DNA Project


 Results Help

Below is some helpful information I have come across on the Internet that I hope will aid you when trying to learn more about your particular haplogroup, or 'from whence you came'. Enjoy!

The Y Haplogroup classification of the male Y-chromosome is currently used to estimate the population group of the paternal line. The haplogroups are identified by the letters, A through T. Haplogroups are subdivided into one or more levels, called subclades, and thus forming a tree. The Y-chromosome haplogroup is determined by performing a sequence of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP's, pronounced snips) tests.

The International Society of Genetic Geneaology (ISOGG) has the most complete and up-to-date Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree, where you can compare your results: http://www.isogg.org/tree/index.html

The below acronyms represent researcher(s) and labs responsible for the discovery of specific SNP's:

IMS-JST = Institute of Medical Science-Japan Science and Technology Agency
L = Thomas Krahn, MSC (Dipl. Ing.), Family Tree DNA's Genomics Research Center; in honor of the late Leo Little
M = Peter Underhill, Ph.D. of Stanford University
N = The Laboratory of Bioinformatics, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing
P = Michael Hammer, Ph.D. of University of Arizona
Page or PS = David C. Page, Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research
PK = Biomedical and Genetic Engineering Laboratories, Islamabad, Pakistan
S = James F. Wilson, D.Phil. at Edinburgh University
U = Lynn M. Sims, University of Central Florida; Dennis Garvey, Ph.D. Gonzaga University; and Jack Ballantyne, Ph.D., University of Central Florida
V = Rosaria Scozzari and Fulvio Cruciani, Università "La Sapienza", Rome, Italy

For more on SNP's, please visit our "About Y-Chromosomal DNA" page.

 Information to Help Determine Deep Ancestry

http://www.genetree.com/education/r

 

 
R1b Known SNP's
  • S116 (P312) is the major subgroup of R1b and defines the descendents of the Iberian glacial refuge.
  • S145 (L21, M529) is the most common subgroup of S116 in NW Europe. It demonstrates a paternal link to the earliest inhabitants of Britain and Ireland.
  • M222 defines the most important Ancient Irish lineage. M222 defines a subgroup of S145 which has been shown by EthnoAncestry to mark the "Irish" subgroup of R1b, characterizing the series of Irish surnames associated with the Ui Neill lineage of Northwest Ireland (descendants of Niall of the Nine Hostages) and deeper relatives, including a significant proportion of people in the West of Scotland, via the Dalriadic migration.
  • S168 & S169 define two Irish subgroups of S145, with S168 more pre-dominant in SW Ireland and S169 in Eastern Ireland. Both are found at much lower frequencies in Scotland and England. S168defines a subgroup of S145 which originated in Ireland over 1000 years ago and is particularly common in the southwest of the country, for example in Counties Clare, Tipperary, Limerick and Cork. It has been seen in Scotland and England, but much more rarely. It has been suggested that this type marks descent from the DalCassian clans, the descendants of Cormac Cas. Most prominent amongst these are the O’Briens, the descendants of Brian Boru, the famous High King of Ireland. S169defines a different subgroup of S145 which is also over 1000 years old and appears to originate in Ireland, but this time concentrated in Leinster in the east of the country, particularly the neighbouring counties of Wicklow, Kildare and Wexford. It is also found in Scotland and England at lower frequencies, mostly around the Irish Sea. In some cases it may indicate descent from the chieftains of the Lagin in Ireland.
  • S21 is a common subgroup, spread out across the North European Plain and around the North Sea.
  • S162 is a newly discovered marker which identifies a substantial fraction of the S21 group. It has been seen across Northwest Europe.
  • S26 defines a rare subgroup of S21 found mostly in England.
  • S29 is a rare marker found in the Germanic areas of the North European plain, as well as England, where it would have been brought by Anglo-Saxons among others.
  • S28 defines a widespread Continental European group, most common in Italy, S France and the Alps, but also present in Germany and the British Isles. S28 defines the second most common subtype of R1b-S116. Just under 10% of the M269-carrying Western European males are in this group. It has been observed in Greece, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, France, Poland, Norway and the Netherlands. It is also present in Scotland, Wales and England.
  • SRY2627, a subgroup of S116 (P312) is a marker specific to Iberia, but has recently been found in samples from Western Britain, perhaps indicating a movement of people along the Atlantic coast in the Iron Age or later. SRY2627 (M167) arose in Spain and is also observed in SW England and Ireland at very low frequencies.
  • S141 & S127 define sub-groups of M269+ which are found in Italy and the Balkans.
  • M153, S139 & S68 define other rarer subgroups, one is Iberian, one more widespread. M153 originated in Spain and is observed among Latinos in the New World. S68 defines a rare lineage in the S116 (P312)  paragroup. It appears to be a marker of Norse Viking ancestry in the British Isles and has been seen in Scandinavia, Orkney, Lewis, Skye, as well as in Fife. Indications are that it is considerably rarer in the East and South of the British Isles.
  • S182 defines a new subgroup of the R1b-S116* group. S182 appears to have originated in Scandinavia and would therefore mark Viking ancestry in the British Isles. It is most common in Norway, but is also seen in Sweden and Denmark.
 

Haplogroup R1b (M269) Subgroups

   

Haplogroup R1b

(Source: http://www.pbase.com/image/40434624)

Haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA) U106 L48 R-L48 R1b1b2a1a1d
R1b1b2a1a1d aka R1b1b2a1a4 (by Family Tree DNA - FTDNA)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R1b_(Y-DNA)#R1b1b2a1a1_.28R-U106.29

Paleolithic Man: 30,000 BC
R1b probably arrived in Spain from the east among the peoples considered to be aboriginal to Europe. It is believed that everyone who is R1b is a descendant in the male line from an individual known as “the patriarch” since his descendants account for over 40% of all the chromosomes of Europe. This haplogroup is characteristic of the Basques people who are genetically the closest of the original R1b population of only a few thousand.
Source: Dr. David Faux
http://www.davidkfaux.org/shetlandhaplogroupR1b

Altamira Cave, Northern Spain: 18,000 BC
Location: N43 22 57.1 W4 06 58.2 (Santillana del Mar, Spain)
During the Last Glacial Maximum, about 18,000 years ago, the people bearing the R1b haplogroup over wintered in Northern Spain. After the glacial retreat about 12,000 years before present, R1b began a migration to the north in large numbers and to the east in declining numbers. Source: Ken Nordtvedt
http://home.comcast.net/~libpjr1/haplogroupI.htm

In 1879, the first cave with Stone Age paintings was discovered at Altamira in northern Spain. At the time, it almost defied belief that they were as ancient as we now know them to be, almost 15 000 years old. The influence of Darwinian Theory led scientists to believe that early man was ape-like and therefore incapable of mentally challenging or artistically creative acts. Thus the Altamira paintings were immediately declared to be fakes. Only after the discovery of more Stone Age caves, whose paintings could be dated on the basis of their relationship to the archaeological find, and further research, were they finally confirmed as originals. Source: Deutsches Museum
Link:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altamira_(cave)
Link:
http://www.showcaves.com/english/es/showcaves/Altamira.html

Atlantic Modal Haplotype (AMH):
Four sub-clades of R1b are derived from the repeats of DYS markers 390 and 391. The most common sub-clade is known as the Atlantic Modal Haplotype (AMH) with values of 24/11. The AMH is most common along the Atlantic coast from Spain to Scotland.

Anglo-Saxon Sub-Clade of R1b:
This sub-clade will have values of 23/11 at DYS markers 390 and 391. If one's known ancestry is in the British Isles and one has R1b of this sub-clade, the odds are tilted against that being an "indigenous" R1b and toward being a NW European continental R1b brought to the British Isles by one of the historic invader/immigrant groups from Brussels, Holland, NW Germany, and Denmark. This tilt should be incorporated into all the other surname and related information you have about origins of your R1b. This represents Anglo/Saxon England populations after the Roman occupation ended in 410 AD but before the Norman/Viking populations in the early 1000's AD.
Link:
http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~gallgaedhil/haplo_r1b_dys390_23_two.htm

Haplogroup R1b1c9 S21+
In August 2007, EthnoAncestry tested member 25104 confirming the SNP for DNA Haplogroup R1b1c9 S21+. This SNP is found mainly in the Nordic and Jastorf culture areas along the North Sea: Link:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nordic_Bronze_Age
Link:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jastorf_culture
Extended marker testing for on e member indicates DYS492 =13 which in nearly all cases indicates a positive result for S21 R1b1c9.
NOTE: Dr. James Watson, one of the two scientist who discovered DNA in 1953 is also R1b1c9: (P25+ R1b1), (M269+ R1b1c), (S21+ R1b1c9)
Note: May 2008 renamed to R1b1b2g for S21+ AKA U106+
http://www.familytreedna.com/PDF/2008-HaploChart_GR_lores.pdf
Additional testing in 2009 identified this as R1b1b2a1a4 L48+

Other Sub-Clades of R1b:
DYS repeats of 24/10 are found throughout Europe and repeats of 23/10 are slightly higher in SE Germany and into Austria.

Click For R1b World Map:
http://www.pbase.com/daveb/image/36255498/original
DNA Map R1b1:
http://www.familytreedna.com/(0mpnwk55bht04y450p4rzub3)/deepclade.html#deepR1b

Atlantic Modal Haplotype (AMH)

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User%3ASwid/Sandbox#Modal_haplotypes)

 

Main article: Atlantic Modal Haplotype

Recognizable instances of a modal haplotype have been noted within the R1b haplogroup.

One of the best-characterized of these haplotypes is the Atlantic Modal Haplotype (AMH). This haplotype reaches the highest frequencies in the Iberian Peninsula and in the British Isles. In the Iberian Peninsula it reaches 33% in Portugal (in some areas of northern Portugal it is greater than 96%). This has additionally been referenced in literature as Haplotype 15.

Another haplotype of R1b, with DYS393=12, has been referenced in the literature as Haplotype 35, or ht35[17]. They can be found in high numbers in Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. The members of this haplotype are thought to be descended from early R1b's who found shelter in Anatolia during the Last Glacial Maximum instead of in Iberia. Descendants can be found in high numbers in the Armenian Highland and Armenia with smaller numbers throughout the Middle East, in Jewish populations, in Southeastern Europe, and in the Caucasus Mountains. There is also a sizable pocket of ht35 in Uyghur populations in western China, which is theorized to be a remnant of the Tocharians, an Indo-European speaking people that inhabited the Tarim Basin in Central Asia until later being absorbed by various Turkic peoples. Ht35 is also present in Britain in areas that were found to have a high concentration of Haplogroup J, suggesting they arrived together, most likely with the arrival of Roman soldiers.

 

Atlantic Modal Haplotype (AMH)

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlantic_Modal_Haplotype)

In human genetics, the Atlantic Modal Haplotype (AMH) or haplotype 15 is a Y chromosome haplotype of Y-STR microsatellite variations, associated with the Haplogroup R1b. It was discovered prior to many of the SNPs now used to identify subclades of R1b and references to it can be found in some of the older literature. It corresponds most closely with subclade R1b1b2a1a [L11].

The AMH is the most frequently occurring haplotype amongst human males in Atlantic Europe. It is characterised by the following marker alleles:

  • DYS388 12
  • DYS390 24
  • DYS391 11
  • DYS392 13
  • DYS393 13
  • DYS394 14 (also known as DYS19)

It reaches the highest frequencies in the Iberian Peninsula and in Great Britain and Ireland. In the Iberian Peninsula it reaches 70% in Portugal as a whole, more than 90% in NW Portugal and nearly 90% in Galicia (NW Spain), while the highest value is to be found among Spanish Basques.

One mutation in either direction would be AMH 1.15+. The AMH 1.15 set of haplotypes is also referred to as the Atlantic Modal Cluster or AMC.

 
Below: Deepclade R Chart (reproduced from FTDNA website) along with associated SNP's
 

Additional Haplogroup Summary's:

One of the purposes of the Sutherland DNA project is to help those who descend from Sutherland's to learn about their deep ancestry and thus it is outside the scope of this project to create a comprehensive account of each and every haplogroup know to science thus far. However, because our project members stem from three haplogroups, I, T and R, we will instead concentrate on just these particular groups. And because the vast majority of our project members belong to haplogroup R,we suppose it is only fitting to devote the greatest amount of our time and resources learning about this particular haplogroup.   

Haplogroup A:
Descendents of "Adam."
See Haplogroups A-J Summary on the website GeneTree (
http://www.genetree.com/education/a_j).

Haplogroup R Summary:
Haplogroup R is one of the two branches of the mega-haplogroup P. R originated approximately 30,000 years ago in Central Asia. It has two main branches, R1 and R2. R1 spread from Central Asia into Europe. Meanwhile, R2 spread east into the Indian subcontinent. Population movements have brought small numbers of both southward into the Eastern African Levant. 

R1a:
Believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black and Caspian Seas. Believed to have originated in a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (approximately 3000 B.C.E.). Also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. Currently found in central and western Asia, India, and in
Slavic populations of Eastern Europe.

R1b:
The most common haplogroup in European populations. Believed to have expanded throughout Europe as humans re-colonized after the last glacial maximum 10-12 thousand years ago. Also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype.

R1b (continued):
Paleolithic Man: 30,000 BC
R1b probably arrived in Spain from the east among the peoples considered to be aboriginal to Europe. It is believed that everyone who is R1b is a descendant in the male line from an individual known as “the patriarch” since his descendants account for over 40% of all the chromosomes of Europe. This haplogroup is characteristic of the Basques people who are
genetically the closest of the original R1b population of only a few thousand.
Source: Dr. David Faux
http://www.davidkfaux.org/shetlandhaplogroupR1b

Altamira Cave, Northern Spain: 18,000 BC
Location: N43 22 57.1 W4 06 58.2 (Santillana del Mar, Spain)
During the Last Glacial Maximum, about 18,000 years ago, the people bearing the R1b haplogroup over wintered in Northern Spain. After the glacial retreat about 12,000 years before present, R1b began a migration to the north in large numbers and to the east in declining numbers. Source: Ken Nordtvedt
http://home.comcast.net/~libpjr1/haplogroupI.htm

In 1879, the first cave with Stone Age paintings was discovered at Altamira in northern Spain. At the time, it almost defied belief that they were as ancient as we now know them to be, almost 15 000 years old. The influence of Darwinian Theory led scientists to believe that early man was ape-like and therefore incapable of mentally challenging or artistically creative acts. Thus the Altamira paintings were immediately declared to be fakes. Only after the discovery of more Stone Age caves, whose paintings could be dated on the basis of their relationship to the archaeological find, and further research, were they finally confirmed as originals. Source: Deutsches Museum Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altamira_(cave) Link: http://www.showcaves.com/english/es/showcaves/Altamira.html See also cave art in Lascoux, France. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lascaux

R1b-P312 (S116): A major subgroup (sub-clade) of R1b and defines the descendents of the Iberian glacial refuge.

Four sub-clades of R1b are derived from the repeats of DYS markers 390 and 391. The most common sub-clade is known as the Atlantic Modal Haplotype (AMH) with values of 24/11. The AMH is most common along the Atlantic coast from Spain to Scotland. 

The Atlantic Modal Haplotype (AMH) reaches the highest frequencies in the Iberian Peninsula and in the British Isles. In the Iberian Peninsula it reaches 33% in Portugal (in some areas of northern Portugal it is greater than 96%).

The AMH is the most frequently occurring haplotype amongst human males in Atlantic Europe. It is characterised by the following marker alleles:

•DYS388 12
•DYS390 24
•DYS391 11
•DYS392 13
•DYS393 13
•DYS394 14 (also known as DYS19)

It reaches the highest frequencies in the Iberian Peninsula and in Great Britain and Ireland. In the Iberian Peninsula it reaches 70% in Portugal as a whole, more than 90% in NW Portugal and nearly 90% in Galicia (NW Spain), while the highest value is to be found among Spanish Basques.


Source: GeneTree (http://www.genetree.com/education/r)

Haplogroup R is defined by a DNA marker known as M207. Everyone who carries this marker today descends from a common paternal ancestor who lived about 30,000 years ago in west Asia. To date, over thirty subclades of haplogroup R have been identified, of which, R1a1-M17 and R1b1b2-M269 (historically called R1b3) are the most well described. Both of these subgroups are indicators of European ancestry with haplogroup R1a1-M17 most representative of Eastern Europeans and R1b1b2-M269 most characteristic of Western Europeans.

HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY OF HAPLOGROUP R per the Genetree website:

As members of the human family, all people living today can trace their earliest paternal ancestors to populations that lived approximately 100,000 years ago in eastern Africa. These early humans became spread throughout the African continent, and beginning ~50,000 years ago, a series of complex migrations moved them out of Africa into regions of Asia and beyond to
eventually populate every major area of the world.

Approximately 26-30,000 years ago haplogroup R emerged in west Asia descending from a widespread Asian haplogroup known as K-M9. Representatives of haplogroup R expanded to the west and south migrating throughout central and southwest Asia into India, the Middle East, and Europe. During this time, subgroups R1-M173 became frequent throughout central and western Eurasia while R2-M124 distributed mainly within regions of Central and South Asia. Today, members of haplogroup R*-M207 who carry the R-M207 marker, but neither R1-M173 nor R2-M124 markers, can still be found in Central and South Asia.

Haplogroup R2-M124 expanded in the Asian subcontinent following the last Ice Age which manifested its maximum severity ~18,000 years ago and today is found in India, Pakistan, Central Asia, and Turkey with decreasing frequencies respectively. Little is currently known about the subgroups of R2-M124.

Haplogroup R1-M173, represented primarily by subgroups R1a1-M17 and R1b1b2-M269, became well established in Europe during the Upper Paleolithic Period (Late Stone Age) contributing to the spread of Aurignacian or Gravettian culture, characterized by advanced artistic and technological achievements. During this period, populations were ranging across Europe and subsisted mostly by hunting and gathering. An impending Ice Age, reaching its maximum (the LGM=Last Glacial Maximum) beginning ~18-20,000 years ago and lasting several thousands of years, subsequently covered most of Europe with massive glaciers forcing populations to retreat to geographically isolated refuge areas where they were able to persist. Individuals of R1a1-M17 withdrew primarily to refuges located in present day Ukraine and Asia Minor while representatives of R1b1b2-M269 became most concentrated in the Iberian refuge.

As the Ice Age began to abate ~13,000 years ago and living conditions slowly improved across Europe, localized populations migrated from refuge areas to repopulate Europe and areas of Asia. Specifically, representatives of haplogroup R1a1-M17 expanded into eastern Europe and into parts of Asia whereas those of R1b1b2-M269 moved primarily throughout western Europe, creating opposite geographic distributions which are still evident today. Currently, R1a1-M17 is rare across Western Europe but is found throughout eastern Europe in countries such as Poland, Hungary, and Ukraine; in central Asia with highest prevalence in Altaic-speaking populations of eastern Kyrgyzstan and Indo-European-speaking populations of Tajikistan; and in areas of northwest India. In contrast, R1b1b2-M269 is found at very high frequencies (50-80%) throughout western Europe particularly in the Ireland, Wales, Scotland, England, Portugal, France, Germany, and northern Italy, with diminishing frequencies towards the east although representation stretches as far as central Asia and India.

Once the Ice Age ended haplogroup R would continue to play significant roles in subsequent phases of European history, including the adoption and spread of farming and agriculture, Greek and Roman influences, and the Middle Ages. These and other historic events are currently being studied within the context of Y-DNA haplogroups. This ongoing research will
surely enrich our current understanding of world history as well as our own personal and family histories.

IBERIAN R1b HAPLOGROUPS

Haplogroups R1b1b2a2c-M153 and R1b1b2a2d-M167 are considered indigenous to the Iberian Peninsula which encompasses Portugal, Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar, and a portion of France. Evidence suggests that R1b1b2a2c-M153 originated ~18,000 thousand years ago among the Iberian Basques, an ethnic group whose non-IndoEuropean language, Euskara is the oldest surviving language in Europe. Haplogroup R1b1b2a2d-M167 also originated in Iberia but evolved among its non-Basque population.

HAPLOTYPES OF HAPLOGROUP R

A Y-DNA haplotype consists of a series of STR (Short Tandem Repeat) markers located along the Y-chromosome. Each STR marker has a very high mutation rate and therefore changes rather quickly through time. Because of their high variability STR haplotypes can identify recent relationships within a haplogroup. One well known example is the 6-marker Atlantic Modal Haplotype§ (AMH), which is shared at high frequencies by members of haplogroup R1b1b2-M269 living in the European Atlantic facade, specifically Celtic-speaking populations of Ireland and Wales, Scandinavian countries of Netherlands and Norway, and the Basque population. Additionally, a 17-marker haplotype known as the Irish Modal Haplotype§§ (IMH) accounts for 17% of haplogroup R1b1b2-M269 members in northwest Ireland.

The Y-STR marker, DYS458 is commonly tested by genetic-genealogy companies and is included in many public databases. An unusual "0.2" value (ex. DYS458 = 17.2) is relatively common and typically associated with the Middle Eastern haplogroup J1-M267. However, DYS458.2 values have recently been found to also exist within haplogroups R1b1b2-M269 and R1b1b2a1-M405. Haplogroups J and R do not share this unusual marker because of common ancestry but due to chance independent mutation events. This result underscores the weakness of using a single STR marker or too few STR markers as indicators of common ancestry, even when those values are relatively rare.

FAMOUS MEMBERS OF HAPLOGROUP R

One of Scotland's greatest warriors, Somerled of Argyll, who is credited with driving the Vikings from Scotland, belonged to haplogroup R1a1-M17. Members of Clan Donald, which Somerled founded, were tested to determine Somerled's Y-chromosome membership. In 2005, Oxford University further found that Somerled possibly had 500,000 living descendants. If that is correct, he would be the second most common ancestor after Genghis Khan.

Possible descendants of Niall of the Nine Hostages, an Irish king in the Dark Ages, are members of R1b1b2a2e-M222. These descendants are associated with the U’ NŽill clan.

American presidents John Adams and Franklin Pierce belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup R1b1b2-M269.

Joseph Smith Jr., founder of the Mormon Church with current worldwide membership exceeding 13 million, belonged to haplogroup R1b1b2a2e-M222.

Anderson Cooper, an Emmy Award winning American journalist, author, and anchor of the CNN news show Anderson Cooper 360º belongs to haplogroup R1a1-M17.

HAPLOGROUP R AND THE GENETREE DATABASE

The GeneTree haplogroup predictor reports the following R-haplogroups: R1a1-M17, R1b-M343, R1b-M343, R1b1b2*-M269, R1b1b2-M269, R1b1b2a*-S127, R1b1b2a-S127, R1b1b2a1*-M405, R1b1b2a1-M405, R1b1b2a1a-M467, R1b1b2a2e-M222, and R1b1b2a2g-U152, with more on the way!

Approximately 45% of the GeneTree and SMGF databases are members of haplogroup R.

Notes:
* A haplogroup designation followed by a "*" signifies the presence of a haplogroup defining marker but the absence of any other known subclade markers. For example, R1*-M173 is a member of haplogroup R1 but not a member of its subgroup R1a-SRY1532.2.


Haplogroup I Summary, per GeneTree website:

Haplogroup I, defined by a Y-DNA marker named M170, probably emerged in Europe about 28,000 years ago. Today, haplogroup I accounts for approximately 20% of Europe's overall population with higher incidence in Scandinavian and Baltic regions. Currently, there are less than twenty known subgroups of haplogroup I.

HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY OF HAPLOGROUP I

As members of the human family, all people living today can trace their earliest paternal ancestors to populations that lived approximately 100,000 years ago in eastern Africa. These early humans became spread throughout the African continent, and beginning ~50,000 years ago, a series of complex migration moved them out of Africa into regions of Asia and beyond to eventually populate every major area of the world.

Following early man's successful migration "Out of Africa" and into Eurasia, an ancient lineage known as haplogroup, F-M89 diverged into several major haplogroups to be among the first of non-African origin. Representatives from these various haplogroups became fragmented and dispersed across the Eurasian continent during the middle and upper Paleolithic (Stone Age) periods. One lineage to arise during this early phase of human history was haplogroup IJ-M429, which would later split into two significant haplogroups, Middle Eastern haplogroup J and European haplogroup I.

Haplogroup I emerged roughly 24-28,000 years ago in Europe, somewhere close to the Near East, amidst the initial colonization of Europe during Paleolithic times. Of all the major haplogroups found in Europe today haplogroup I is considered the only core haplogroup to have originated in Europe, and along with haplogroup R, to have been present in Europe prior to the last Ice Age (Last Glacial Maximum). The expansion of haplogroup I was possibly linked to the spread of Aurignacian and Gravettian cultures, both artistically and technologically advanced.

Members of haplogroup I along with all European populations were dramatically affected by the onset of the last Ice Age, which made most of northern and central Europe uninhabitable during the period spanning ~18-13,000 years ago. Representatives of haplogroup I retreated to refuge areas in Iberia and the Balkans where living conditions were more hospitable. As the Ice Age receded, members of haplogroup I dispersed from these refuges into surrounding areas, displaying contrasting distribution patterns that still persist in modern European populations.

During the repopulation of Europe haplogroup I1-M253 emerged ~8,000 years ago near present-day Denmark and dispersed westward to possibly to occupy the Doggerland land bridge, an area that has since become covered by the lower North Sea. Members of haplogroup I1-M253 also migrated into Scandinavia where it is currently found at high frequencies in Denmark (33%), northern Sweden (26%), southern Sweden (35%), Norway (39%), and in the Saami (29%), a group indigenous to present day Nordic countries.

In contrast to the expansion of haplogroup I from Iberia, dissemination from the Baltic refuge was accomplished mostly by members of sublineage I2-M438. Haplogroup I2-M438, which further resolves into subgroups I2a-P37.2 and I2b-M436, emerged from the Baltics to spread across eastern Europe reaching into western regions of Russia and the Near East, as far as Anatolia. I2a-P37.2 subdivides into I2a1-M423 and I2a2-M26 with haplogroup I2a1-M423 prevalent throughout eastern Europe in countries such as the Ukraine (17%), Albania (17%), Slovenia (20%), Croatia (31%), and Bosnia (40%), and haplogroup I2a2-M26 frequent in Sardinian populations. Haplogroup I2b-M436 has a more unusual distribution with I2b*-M436 representatives scattered sparsely through regions of north and central Europe compared to its subgroup I2b1-M223 which is more frequent in these regions, indicating these two groups have somewhat different histories despite being closely related.

HAPLOGROUP I AND THE GENETREE DATABASE

The GeneTree haplogroup predictor reports the following haplogroup I lineages: I-M170, I1-M253, I2a-P37.2, I2a1-M423, I2a2-M26, I2b-M436, and I2b1-M223, with more on the way!

Approximately 12% of the GeneTree and SMGF databases are members of haplogroup I.


Haplogroup T Summary, per GeneTree:
Haplogroup T-M70 and was previously known as haplogroup K2. Members of haplogroup T are found at relatively low frequencies in Eurasia, the Middle East, and North and West Africa.